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The speckgurtel thrives again

renewed growth of the bacon belt

New housing development in baar-ebenhausen, directly on the munich-ingolstadt rail line. Ingolstadt’s main train station can be reached in 10 minutes by train; by car it is about 15 km to ingolstadt. Images: tp

New housing construction needs a regional identity space

It is highly regrettable that the bavarian constitutional court has recently rejected a petition for a referendum against land consumption as inadmissible. Because soil is both our natural basis of life and a non-reproducible resource, it requires special protection. Decades ago, the great economist edgar salin, when pondering the prosperity and future prospects of a region, made it clear that this would not be achieved by the sprawl of the cities into the surrounding countryside, but would require vitalization from within.

It was thought that the phenomenon of suburbanization had long left its future behind it. What a mistake! Even the striking argument that the renowned sociologist hartmut haubermann once put forward many years ago under the heading of "end of the housewife model" into the debate no longer really holds water. It reads approximately as follows: a man (ernahrer) moves with his wife (huterin) and two children to the little house, and this is in the surrounding countryside. There the land prices are low and the garden roughly. The family owns two cars so he can drive to work and she can drive to the grocery store and the kids.

But since the educational level of women has improved dramatically, they have advanced professionally, and at the same time jobs as well as family ties have become insecure, the model has largely become obsolete. Now women have to reconcile work, family and home life. This, however, is a balancing act that is difficult in the countryside. Things would be better in the city, perhaps best of all in those basic neighborhoods where, in addition to schools, kindergartens and sports clubs, there are also pubs, bakeries, butchers, organic supermarkets, bookstores and boutiques. Those who can afford an apartment there have a part of the daily contact points in the immediate vicinity.

Today we have to say: it’s already been! Because recent developments – key words: gentrification and rent explosion – have fundamentally changed the situation. There is simply no adequate and affordable offer in the urban context. And of necessity, apartment owners have to draw consequences from this – and often far after the fact. Many of those affected do not have a need for suburban living, but rather for certain qualities of life (living space, housing-related open space, etc.) that are much more cost-efficient in the surrounding area.), which are much more affordable or affordable in the surrounding areas. Are simply not to be found in the city itself.

In recent years, there has been talk only of the renaissance of the "reurbanization" and the "renaissance of the city". But now the current housing shortage, the.H. The fact that many people are no longer able to find suitable and affordable housing in the city has made the problem of the speckgurtel acute again. Of course, this is no reason for the usual lamentation. Instead, we have to understand that it is hardly possible to operate with the common, albeit too narrowly defined concept of the city, and that we have to think and work much more strongly in regional contexts.

Suburbia is where the city limits end

It is quite interesting here what the publicist dirk vaihinger recently put on record with reference to the swiss context:

Common sense believes that the word ‘agglo’ is an abbreviation of the urban planning term agglomeration. Far from it! From this origin, agglo has long since dissolved. It serves as a designation for a diffuse mixture of province, educational remoteness and tailspoiler. A slight menace also resonates. Not for nothing does agglo rhyme with aggro and not with suburbia.

However, from the blob depreciatory use of the word something new has grown in recent times. Today, agglo has a hint of respect, a respect for cohesion, subculture and nonchalance. The agglo slang has long been the standard in youth language. Just as the hip-hop movement has valorized the american ghetto, the same applies to agglo: it still means proletarian and loud, but at the same time cool, tough, bad.

Dirk vaihinger

Suburb is where the city limits end, or at least where the soft part of the city ends. The railroad has made agglomeration and suburbia possible, which is why people settled along its veins. The peripheral migration of industry and housing was often recaptured by the expanding city, such as when the unified municipality was established in 1920 "grosz-berlin" was implemented.

But it is only since the reconstruction wave of the fifties and driven by motorized individual transport that what is generally imagined as suburbia emerged. And since the 1960s, outlying communities have lured urbanites with legal construction incentives, cheap land, tax breaks and free infrastructure, where the tv dream of home ownership can still become a reality in the countryside.

Since the 1980s came more and more complex "non-integrated" shopping malls as well as industry and product-oriented services. Subsequently, more and more high-quality jobs (media industry, administration) settled in the surrounding area, and the emancipation from the core city now also reached the qualified jobs.

Whereas the airport, landfills and clear plants were initially delegated to the outskirts of the city, around the turn of the millennium there was talk that the core city was about to be, "mulleimer of the urban region" to become. The lack of society in the suburbs was vehemently criticized. In the boredom of modern neighborhoods and in the shorelessness of uncontrolled growth, the very urbanity that makes the city the bearer of our cultural development would be lost. The affluent middle class and the upper classes bury themselves in the idyll of the family home in the suburbs.

As the swiss architect simon hubacher once put it, the architecture that emerges in these gray areas of the city is committed to pragmatism.

The end justifies the means. Nevertheless, they are rarely snorkel-free. More and more unabashedly, it seems, they clamor for attention, nipping in the bud any approach to an overall picture. The recognition of places is not achieved by remembering (city) images. What is more important is the ability to discover and decipher small differences. (…)

They also make clear how strongly the architecture of the suburb is rooted in the spirit of the times and in nostalgia, right down to the details of its imagery. It is anything but individual and personal. Because of this double rootedness of its rules: in the regional and in the present, in the here and now, it is only exceptionally innovative, but very sensitive to current trends. It comes to terms with the current offer of the local construction industry and with the preserved techniques of exportation. She does not take any risks. She reproduces what she is used to and orients herself to market standards.

Simon hubacher

Longing for the single family house in the grune

From an urbanistic point of view, however, one’s own house in the outskirts of the city was always a problem: it was largely beyond the planning grasp and the regulating hand of the authorities. It was a priori an element of irregularity in that it distanced itself not only spatially from the city, but at the same time from the urban regulation typical of the city.

Obviously, there is an insatiable longing among broad sections of society for suburbia, for the family home in the countryside, for a distance from the hectic, noisy, polluted, increasingly insecure city, for a closeness to nature, for a community that promises security, tranquility and social homogeneity, for an environment that is more suitable for children than the interior of the coarse city. But that process, in which the single-family residential area is "nature of a wandering dune" is based on the rapid spread of the private car, but is by no means inevitable, is often forgotten. Because he is supported and encouraged by a multitude of state frameworks and demand policies (road construction, child construction allowance, commuter allowances).

The political goal of "leveled middle-class society" has thus in fact become a kind of "mission statement" the concept of the detached single-family house, which has always been controversial among experts, is still rejected as a landscape-destroying and anti-urban symbol of the confinement of small towns and the decline of the building culture.

But that is only one side of the coin. For the foreseeable future, there is no alternative but to target building sites in peripheral locations or in the outskirts of the cities. The situation is tricky. If our society generates about 380 new homes a year.000 new housing units are needed (of which up to 120.000 social housing units), then space is needed for them.

Redensification of existing cities makes absolute sense; however, it has its limits in terms of quantity and meets with enormous resistance in many places in terms of quality. The fact that new land is being taken up over and over again "drauben" criticism is understandable. However, this is a social negotiation process that takes place under unequal starting conditions: if, for example, we want to reduce land consumption to 30 hectares, this means that those claims to space that have already been realized are clearly preferred over future ones. With which right?

Certainly, one must not minimize the inherent dangers: that the coarseness of the task and the urgency of the action blocks innovation. That it favors measures that obstruct long-term and sustainable perspectives (in the literal sense). A blob quantitatively oriented housing policy can all too quickly blend into monofunctional and socially homogeneous express settlements somewhere "jwd". In other words, exactly the opposite of what is required for a meaningful urbanistic perspective.

Nevertheless, or precisely because of this, it is necessary to be free of hasty judgments. Under the heading "quint essence" the inimitable comedian heinz erhardt once published the following poem: "sometimes the door to paradise is closed and sometimes it is open, because sometimes you are drunk and sometimes you are sober." do you have to be drunk, to stay in the picture, to see the region as a whole? Be it in the rhetoric of globalization as a basic unit for networking in strategic alliances, be it under the goals of sustainability as the smallest suitable unit for "on-site"-concepts?

The point is to create visions: goals that the population and the local community can agree on; milestones that are oriented toward the actors and focus on what is necessary and feasible. We have to define appropriate qualities for suburbia, including structural and spatial qualities. Therefore, the task is: from what is subsumed under suburbanization or zwischenstadt, a identity space to make.

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